off grid solar kits australia

Chile’s solar/pumped hydro project is still on-hold

The 600 MW solar farm and a 300 MW pumped hydro plant could be delivering continuous baseload power, enough to fill about 5% of Northern Chile’s baseload demand.

The Valhalla solar/pumped hydro project would be the first to demonstrate that baseload power can be generated from a utility-scale PV plant.

The project will send intermittent generation from the 600 MW Cielos de Tarapacá solar PV farm to the 300 MW Espejo de Tarapacá pumped hydro plant in order to convert it into baseload power.

Often claimed to be new technology, Valhalla’s pumped hydro plant is planning to use the sea as the lower reservoir. It plans to convert most of the intermittent output from a utility-scale off grid solar kits australia PV farm into baseload power, which could be a “world first”.

off grid solar
off grid solar

The following data listed are from Valhalla’s 2015 Environmental Assessment, although there are still no detailed plant specifications:

  • Capacity: 300MW (three 100MW reversible turbines)
  • Tunnel diameter: 4.9m
  • Reservoir surface elevation when full: 608.5m
  • Permanent storage: 12 million cu m
  • Base volume: 15 million cu m
  • Normal operation volume: 25 million cu m
  • Average annual energy input: 2.28 GWh/day
  • Average annual generation: 1.75 GWh/day
  • Investment $385 million ($1,270/kW)

There’s still no estimates for the total storage capacity but a calculation based on 10 million cu m of sea water (normal operating minus base volume), 77% round-trip efficiency (1.75 GWh output, 2.28 GWh input) and a head of 608.5m gives 15.2 GWh.

off grid solar
off grid solar

Valhalla’s 600MW Cielo de Tarapacá solar farm is located 65km inland from the pumped hydro plant at an elevation of around 1,000m, this is because of high humidity and reoccurring sea fog in Chile’s coastal area. The estimated cost for Valhalla’s solar farm is at $900m, or $1,500/kW.

Chilean-style solar/pumped hydro projects will not allow the world to transition to renewable energy. The mix of favorable coastal topography and superior off grid solar kits resources that make it potentially feasible seems to be unique to Chile.

The Sahara desert might compete in terms of solar potential, but the solar-pumped hydro approach could not be applied at scale outside Chile. The steep-to coastal topography needed to support large pumped hydro sites exist but there are few if any places outside Northern Chile where the two exist in combination over so large an area.

For now, Valhalla has all of its permits in hand and had proposed to begin construction last 2017, but development is still on hold while the company seeks its $1.2 billion for financing.

For More detail visit

off grid solar system kit

Ludington Power Plant to Get 15% More Power After a Six-Year Upgrade

The six-year $800+ million upgrades of the Ludington Pumped Storage Power plant set its generating capacity to 2,172 megawatts.

In 2011, Consumers off grid power systems and Detroit Edison announced the $800 million upgrade for the power plant, with plans to replace the six turbines with more efficient models. The project started in 2013, all six units should be back in service by spring 2020.

Completed in 1973, the 45-yeard old power plant stands on a sandy, dune-like bluff, high above Lake Michigan near Ludington. Its construction began in 1969 at $327 million.

Often compared to a storage battery, the power plant can be placed online at full capacity within minutes. The hydro-electric plant uses six reversible pump turbines that, at its peak, can produce 1, 872 megawatts.

When demand for electricity is higher, the water flows back down through the penstock during the day, turning the turbines that produce power. It is what enables the plant to respond quickly to the highs and lows of Michigan’s energy demand. At night, during off-peak hours, the turbines are reversed to pump water from Lake Michigan into the upper reservoir.

off grid power systems
off grid power systems

This 27 billion gallon reservoir, measuring to 2.5 miles long and a mile wide, has enough power to serve a community of 1.4 million residential customers.

In 2015, operating performance of the upgraded pump-turbine was measured during the performance test. It confirmed turbine efficiency performance against turbine output increased to a larger output range. In the case of pump operation, the pump discharge of the new runner increased by about 15% compared with the original at all head ranges.

The performance test carried out verified that Unit 1 has successfully achieved its target performance. Unit 1’s major overhaul was completed and turned to commercial operation test on March 12, 2015. Unit 2 was completed in May 2016.

A 2017 DTE Energy report outlined some of the major steps of the upgrade and its current status.

  • The first outage began in the fall of 2013 with the last outage planned to complete in 2019.
  • Each outage included three major steps: (1)Disassembly of the unit. (2)Refurbishment of wicket gates, main shaft, and spider. (3)Installation of the new runner, stator, thrust bearings, poles, and exciter
  • To date Unit 2 and Unit 4 upgrades have been completed
  • Unit 2 was tested to the design specification and was found to meet all the specifications. In addition, the unit will produce more output than expected.
  • Unit 5 has been disassembled and is in the refurbishment phase.
  • The next unit to be overhauled is Unit 6 which will have an expanded scope to include starting “pony” motor

Using the latest technology to improve efficiency and pump cavitation performance and increase turbine output and pump discharge, the new pump-turbines for the Ludington plant were redesigned by Toshiba.

The manufacturing for the other units is in progress and barring any unforeseen issues.

The DTE Energy reports predicted that the upgrade is currently worth $806 million, which is $14 million lower than what the company’s board approved.

Article Source:

social media marketing

Social Media Marketing – Guide For Beginners

Many business owners get so excited with the trend of going online that sometimes, the planning part tends to go awry. If you really want to see the results that would work to your advantage, it is a must to make a roadmap so that your efforts will be targeted toward a specific goal. The roadmap should take account of strategies to employ, metrics to achieve and results to measure.

What is Social Media?

Social media involves activities like audio exposure, images, videos, content and social interaction. When used for social media marketing purposes, participating in different social media networks will help any business achieve marketing communication goals and improve the popularity of a brand.

social media marketing
social media marketing

To understand how social media marketing works, you have to take account of the following:

* Be a contributor to the online community.

A huge percentage of the human population worldwide read articles online and look for information through search engines every so often. And because the population of contributors is relatively small, providing useful content will give you more opportunities to promote your brand.

* Assist others.

If you want to be successful in your social media marketing efforts, the best technique that you can put into play is to help others in any way that you can. Here’s an important rule to remember: Think more of others and minimize talking about yourself.

* Create links.

Links are proven to generate more traffic to your website. Without links, search engines won’t be able to serve their purpose. It is an ordinary practice among website owners to link out to other websites and blogs. You can also try this trick and see the amazing effects yourself.

* Set-up blogs.

Blogs are growing at an uncontrollable rate. Even spam blogs (also called as splogs) are taking over the playing field. If you want to be successful in your online –social media marketing services, don’t ignore the effect that blogs can create. You might be caught off-guard with the amount of traffic it can bring to your site.

* Connect with people.

Especially those who are considered authorities in your niche, you can benefit from the tips they can offer, the guidance they can give and the experience that they are more than willing to share. There are also brand advocates who can do much to make your business known to a good number of interested people.

Be it online or traditional, marketing serves the ultimate purpose of selling your products and services. Before you embark on the journey, make sure that you know where you’re headed and make sure that the vessel you have boarded on is directed toward your planned destination.


baby clothes sale

Baby Clothes Sale

So now the new grandbaby is actually here, I can stop wistfully staring at newborn sleepsuits and other baby clothes online and buy something for real!  He’s a boy so I don’t have to just look at unisex babygrow now, I can look at the baby boy clothes too.

Baby Clothes Sale

As you’d expect there’s a particularly good baby clothes sale on here at Tilly and Jasper! But to be honest most of the good sites out there have a bit of a clear-out at this time of year to make room for their autumn ranges.

This lovely Kite Flamingo organic cotton romper is available with £5 off and it’s one of my favourites. It’s a gorgeous warm yellow colour with a very striking flamingo print.

Kite Flamingo organic cotton romper

There’s £5 off this Seagull Print T-Shirt too!  It’s made from 100% GOTS certified cotton and is super-soft. But take a look at these incredibly cute baby boy leggings tell me they’re not adorable. How cute is that little chick motif! Great for boys and girls alike, I’ll be getting a pair for sure!

Seagull Print T-Shirt

If you’re looking for baby girl clothes and you’re not one for frills and flounces, then I think you’ll love this summery stripy dress. This Mutli Stripe Short Sleeve T-Shirt Dress comes in 100% GOTS certified organic cotton fabric and is a really easy-wear piece. I reckon they should do a Mum version of this one as it would be incredibly popular.

Mutli Stripe Short Sleeve T-Shirt Dress

And what’s not to love about this Stripy Sunflower T-Shirt. The applique sunflower is soft to the touch, simple and super-cheerful. As with all Tilly and Jasper baby clothes, it’s machine washable and brilliant for tots with sensitive skin.

Stripy Sunflower T-Shirt

There’s up to 50% off in the Tilly and Jasper kids clothes sale but you’ll need to get a move on as we’re selling out fast!

For view more products click here


Threat Detection and Response Techniques

In 2005 three suicide bombers detonated body-borne improvised explosive devices (IED’s) in a busy tourist area of Bali, Indonesia killing 20 people. Just three years prior, a mix of both vehicle-borne and body-borne IED’s killed 202 people in the same resort.  These horrific attacks were the result of carefully planned operations linked to radical Islamic terrorism.

Asking Questions

What as security professionals could we have done to protect a client in similar situations? If faced with a similar situation in the future would we be able to identify the threat early enough to react? Is it just a case of accepting that it is a situation of ‘wrong place, wrong time’ and would, therefore, be out of our control?

There are no guarantees within the special event security industry, let alone dealing with extremism. It is the author’s strong belief that behavioral and appearance analysis might make a difference in such situations. Detailed and focused observations of suspect individuals and their behaviors may lead to identifying life-threatening situations early enough to provide that all important, time to react.

Suicide Terrorism

A suicide terrorist may experience strong emotions prior to carrying out an attack, which in turn can be manifested through body language and physiological responses. Certain behaviors and tell-tale actions may be exhibited and these emotions, behaviors, and actions could be used to help identify potential suicide terrorists.

Security organizations throughout the world use behavioral analysis and screening at checkpoints, airports, and rail stations to help identify threats. Individual systems differ in methodology, but all aim to observe behavior and appearance to help their employees identify potential threats.

Fear Factor

High levels of stress or fear are sudden, intense and normally of short duration. The effects of this can be positive and negative, producing an immediate physical reaction and performance-enhancing benefit but also a negative reaction with typical problems including tunnel vision, failure to prioritize, freezing and loss of concentration.

In high stress/high anxiety situations, the biochemical changes that occur can have a significant negative impact on an individuals ability to assess their environment and make effective decisions.  Experiments have shown that when stress and anxiety are increased there is a marked decrease in both the speed and accuracy of problem-solving tasks. 

Controlling Emotions

Training has been proven to play a pivotal role in managing stressful situations, SLA Marshall wrote in his book: Men Against Fire, that only 15 – 20 % of soldiers in WWII combat situations fired their weapons at the enemy. Military training in the aftermath thus focused considerably on improving this. They rehearsed and trained, simulating combat situations and focused on this to a greater extent. The Korean War firing rates had risen to 50% and in Vietnam, it had climbed to 90%.  His research, though questionable based part of this on poor management of fear and stress due to lack of correct training.

The stress and anxiety in such situations certainly contributed to these figures, most likely causing soldiers to freeze, not think properly and become confused. In the American Civil War after the Battle of Gettysburg according to research, some 90% of the muskets recovered from the battlefield were found to be loaded, further, an inspection found that nearly 50% were loaded more than twice and even up to ten times and not fired.

Fail to Prepare…

Why is this important? Because if terrorists have not had a high level of training there is a good chance they could be affected by acute stress in a negative way. Therefore thought processes and problem-solving abilities may be affected, behavioral signs may become more obvious. The general consensus is with more experience and better training people cope with stress and anxiety better, but quality training is usually quite limited in terrorist organizations and therefore they will be more vulnerable to the negative effects of acute stress.

A recent example of stress affecting an Islamic suicide terrorist is that of the UK 7/7 bomber, Hussain in London, U.K.  They were seen laughing and joking prior to the split but on his own when his rucksack failed to detonate on the underground train, it was then he went to ground level, wandered around for nearly an hour, got a new battery for detonation and for some reason decided to board a bus.

An eyewitness saw Hussain on board the number 91 bus at King’s Cross and noticed his bad manners in blocking fellow passengers with his rucksack. She was giving evidence at an inquest into the bus bomb at Tavistock Square. Mrs. Dybek-Echtermeyer said she noticed Hussain as he stood at the front of the bus after boarding. “He looked very exhausted and he had a sweat going onto his chin that looked very horrible,” she said. “He had dry white lips, he looked nervous and exhausted”. The 18-year-old angered those around him as he traveled on a No91 bus along London’s Euston Road. Another eyewitness told the hearing “A woman in her 20s tapped him on the shoulder and politely asked him to be careful because he was hitting an elderly woman and perhaps others.” The witness added: “He simply did not react. I thought he was a lost and anxious tourist. He was behaving very oddly. This evidence suggests that Hussain was reacting adversely to stress and anxiety.

Richard Reid the ‘shoe bomber’ was actually refused entry onto a flight due to his appearance and abnormal behavior. He managed to get on another flight the next day. The ‘underwear bomber’ Abdul Mutallab by all accounts showed high levels of stress and anxiety at airport checkpoints yet no one challenged him.

Identifying Factors

What are the identifying factors of stress?

  • Exaggerated yawning
  • Whistling
  • Facial flushing
  • Repetitive touching of the face
  • Rubbing or wringing of the hands
  • Widely open staring eyes
  • Excessive fidgeting
  • Clock watching
  • Shuffling feet
  • Leg shaking

What are the identifying factors of fear?

  • Trembling/shaking
  • Excessive sweating inconsistent with the environment
  • Rigid posture, arms close together
  • Exaggerated, repetitive grooming gestures
  • Exaggerated emotions or behaviors inappropriate to a location such as laughter or chatter
  • Hesitation/indecision
  • Scanning
  • Tunnel vision

There are other factors that may also be taken into account, acts that are undertaken as part of a deception. Suicide terrorists may use methods to conceal their intent.

What are the identifying factors of deception?

  • Maintaining covert ties with others (keeping eye contact with others, hand gestures etc.)
  • Appears to be confused or disoriented
  • Does not respond to authoritative commands


Detailed and in-depth observations of suspect individuals and their behaviors could be of real benefit to the security professional. The majority of well-trained people reading this article will no doubt do some or most of these consciously and sub-consciously already. There are never definitive answers in situations like these and the world of the suicide terrorist is far from clear and concise.  It is doubtful that a suicide terrorist will manifest all of these characteristics at once if at all and any factors that are noted must be put into context. For example, a person sweating, with repetitive grooming gestures and scanning the room nervously may just be looking for his first blind date.

Other indicators could also be taken into account.

  • Powerful grip of a bag or hand inside a bag
  • Emotionless face
  • Hands in pockets or closed hands for prolonged periods of time
  • Rigid midsection
  • Inappropriate clothing or luggage/rucksack
  • Walking or pacing with deliberation
  • Repeatedly patting upper body
  • Talking to oneself/mumbling or in a trance-like state
  • Not responding to authoritative commands

What-if Scenario

A protection detail could have been dining in Bali, Indonesia in 2005 protecting a client, would they have spotted the behavioral factors? Would the suicide terrorists have even been showing any external factors? Would the protection detail have had time to react even if they had spotted the threat early? These are all hypothetical questions that we will never know the answer to a Content website.

What we do know however is, that it is vital to see and not just look, attention to detail, powers of observation and preempting danger are vital in our roles as protectors. If suicide bomber indicative behaviors are noted early then further interest can be paid to the potential threat, preemptive measures can be taken. It is by no means an exact science but security professionals must constantly add skills to their protective arsenal, using everything in their means to offer the best level of protection to the client.

Basic Route Planning for Driving Instructors

This is an essential element of driving lesson preparation. It requires a thorough knowledge of local geography and traffic conditions. When planning routes you must take into consideration any specific driving skill or procedure, which is still to be practiced. Any unsympathetic route can have disastrous consequences when learner drivers are unnecessarily exposed to conditions with which they are unable to cope. In extreme cases, and with particularly nervous learner drivers, it may even make them give up the idea of learning to drive at all.

A fairly wide selection of planned routes containing various types of traffic hazards and conditions will be required. Flexibility is an important consideration when planning a route because it allows for changes to be made midway through a driving lesson. This may become necessary to allow more time to be spent on an area of driving which may be proving unexpectedly troublesome, and yet still allow the driving lesson to be completed on time for your next appointment or driving test.

Try not to repeat the same route excessively, this can lead to reduced interest from the learner driver, and this can lead to boredom and slow progress. Repetition can be useful when it is carried out deliberately for a specific purpose relevant to the driving lesson. An example could be practicing control skills on the approach to uphill junctions.


Training Routes and Areas Fall into Three Main Categories:

  • Nursery routes
  • Intermediate
  • Advanced

Nursery Routes – require various kinds of roads. try to avoid busy roads and initially, in the very early stages, roads with parked vehicles. These routes should not include pedestrian crossings, traffic lights or roundabouts.

Intermediate Routes – These routes should, wherever possible, be planned to avoid dual carriageways, multi-laned roads, and one-way streets. Junctions which do not conform to basic rules should also be excluded. Right turns on to very busy main roads, and any other particularly difficult situation, should not normally be incorporated into these routes where they can be avoided.

Advanced Routes – These routes will incorporate most of the intermediate routes. They should be progressively extended to include many variations to the basic rules as possible.

childrens clothes sale

Personalized Childrens clothes sale

Buying childrens clothes sale is no easy task. Kids sizing is somewhat ambiguous. All manufacturers seem to make customized childrens clothes sale. That means no two sizes are alike. In fact childrens clothes sale is a lot like women’s clothing. A 2T in one branded childrens clothes sale wear may be the same as a 3T in another’s.

So if you buy your 2-year old toddler a 2T t-shirt in one brand it may or may not fit. You just can’t count on sizing unless you try it on or you know your baby’s exact height and weight and can compare.

As kids get a little bigger it’s a lot easier to shop – and to take advantage of promotional childrens clothes sale. Sales items are the latest and greatest thing when kids get older and the sizing starts to make more sense.

childrens clothes sale
childrens clothes sale

Childrens clothes sale – The Elementary Years

Kids start to take an active interest in what they wear around the time they start elementary school. Don’t worry; you don’t have to rush out and buy branded childrens clothes sale yet. You can still get away with discounted wear. However, you can also still enjoy a few pieces of personalized childrens clothes sale too. Do you sew? Your child will still enjoy a home knit sweater, at least during the early elementary years.

As your child enters middle school he or she will start expressing their likes and dislikes even more. Long gone are the days when pastel colors or bold primary colors were all you had to worry about when shopping.

NOW is the time when your child may start shunning promotional childrens clothes sale in favor of a few major brand names. What do you do if you find buying childrens clothes sale is breaking the bank?

Making Childrens clothes sale Affordable

Kids grow out of their clothing just as fast as they grow into their clothing. To help you pay for the cost of clothes, it often helps to buy second-hand. Many consignment shops sell promotional childrens clothes for half the cost of new clothes at brand name department stores.

The best part? Many consignment shops or second-hand shops sell practically new childrens clothes sale for a fraction of the cost of traditional retail outlets. You can even find a few gems – never before worn pieces of designer kids wear – if you search through the racks of clothing carefully.

If you don’t want to spend hours doing this, have your child help you. Tell them if they really want to look cool then they have to do what it takes to find affordable kids wear. Most kids are more than willing to shop for kids clothes sale with you as they grow older, because they will want to veto certain items you select while eagerly accepting others.

You can also put your child on an allowance so they learn how to “earn” certain specialty items like that expensive pair of sneakers or customized jeans they want to wear. Never buy expensive childrens clothes for just a season unless you have good reason because most kids will grow out of it before you blink an eye, unless you have a child that will grow into it the following season.

Kids organic clothing

Top Reasons To Buy Kids organic clothing

As a parent you want to give your infant the very best that you can buy. It is important that you choose products that are safe for your child. While some make think that kids organic clothing are just a fad, the fact is that they are gentle on your baby’s skin. Clothes made with organic fiber are not exposed to pesticides, fertilizers and other chemicals, unlike other fabric and fiber is. This makes baby organic clothes safer and more comfortable for your little one.

Kids organic clothing

Benefits of Kids organic clothing

Far too often paediatricians find parents coming to them with babies with skin irritations. This is often a result of wearing clothes and fabric that is harsh on the soft and sensitive baby skin. It is wise to choose organic cotton baby clothes for your infant. Even if you are looking for baby clothing to present to a newborn, it is best to opt for kids organic clothing.

An alarming number of infants suffer from respiratory problems. These may be related to the constant exposure to pesticides and chemicals on the infant clothes. When cotton and other natural fiber are grown, large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers are used. Thereafter, at every stage of processing the fiber is exposed to harsh chemicals such as formaldehyde and ammonia.

In case of organic cotton, farmers do not use pesticides and chemicals and the fiber is processed without being exposed to harsh chemicals. This makes organic cotton safe for your baby and you. By buying organic clothing you also support a healthier way of producing fabrics and clothes. This is great for the environment, and for all the people involved in creating the fiber and the clothes.

Buying kids organic clothing on a budget

Organic clothing can be expensive because it requires more effort to produce. The benefits of buying organic cotton baby clothes outweigh the extra cost of the attire. By investing in such clothes, you can bring down the medical bills that may have been caused by wearing clothing full of chemicals and toxins. Also, you will enjoy the satisfaction of knowing that you have reduced the amount of toxins that your baby will encounter in his or her surroundings.

You can shop for such attire on your budget by shopping smartly. If you are shopping for discount kids organic clothing, you may like to conduct a quick online search. You will find many online stores that offer affordable organic clothing kids. You should also stay on the lookout for an kids organic clothing sale. This will let you buy the baby clothing that you want without overspending.

Some stores also offer end-of-the season sale, and you could buy the clothes that you like at a lower price. Choosing to clothe your child in baby organic clothes does not mean that you need to rake up a large bill. You may also find an kids organic clothing wholesale seller who may offer clothing at a great discount. After buying organic wear for your baby, you should also consider opting for organic linen and clothes for the rest of the family.


Homeopathy for Adrenal Fatigue, Hypothyroidism and Chronic Stress Factors


Without continuous thyroid hormone supplements, Helen was practically paralyzed & unable to speak.  With meds, she still felt far from good: very chilly, tired & suffered from ‘mind fog’.  She had a poor appetite. She was not ovulating & her cycle was overly long, with scanty bleeding. At 30 she had the cycles of a woman entering menopause.

Because of the side effects from the thyroid replacement hormones she had been prescribed, Helen was buying expensive natural desiccated thyroxin (NDT) from abroad. Although she has a family history of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Grandmother, mother & sister) & had been diagnosed with it, she suspected that she suffered from hormone disruption due to adrenal fatigue.

Within a month of starting homeopathic treatment, Helen was seeing clear improvements. She had to reduce her NDT dose.  She was beginning to experience symptoms of the high thyroid with the supplement!  She began to feel a greater energy, more clarity & an improvement in her motivation & appetite.  She began to have ‘real’ periods & to ovulate!

In the process of treatment, Helen’s childhood asthma returned. I’d told her this would likely happen, looking at her medical history, and that it would be temporary. Her body would begin to work through old, suppressed conditions on its way to recovery. He had Ventolin to hand. (*Ventolin is not a suppressive medication but should be used only if really necessary.  There is some evidence that continued use causes small lacerations within the lung tissue and can lead to more attacks as a result.)

He is very well, able to work & her mood is greatly improved. Him hormonal balance is good and she is less inclined to overwork then crash and burn!

Now we work together periodically to keep her immune system strong and to avoid the stress issues, antibiotics and steroid medicines that likely triggered her predisposition to thyroid disease.